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Basics of Caches

A cache in userver is a component that periodically polls an external resource and caches its response. Strictly speaking, the cache component is a shadow replica of some resource (database tables, mongo collections, etc.). The use of the cache is that the user receives the current data snapshot and works with that snapshot without waiting for updates. Cache updates occur asynchronously in the background and do not block users from working with the cache.

As a result, the user usually works with slightly outdated data, but at the same time always has an instant access to some version of the data.

Caches usually inherit from components::CachingComponentBase or cache::LruCacheComponent. Sections below describe the features of components::CachingComponentBase. For information on cache::LruCacheComponent refer to Least Recently Used (LRU) Caches and expirable LRU caches.

Update Modes

Caches have two update modes:

  • Full update. In this mode, the cache requests its full state from an external resource.
  • Incremental update. In this mode, the cache requests changes since the last Full update, patching its current state.

If there has not been a successful full update for a long time (more than the value of full-update-interval), then the next update will be full. In particular, if there is a full update error, the next update will also be full.

The cache can disable incremental updates and work only in full updates mode, or vice versa - work only in incremental updates mode. The very first update is always full, regardless of the settings.

Here's a sample update mode settings of components::CachingComponentBase based cache:

yaml
mongo-taxi-config-cache:
update-interval: 5s
update-jitter: 1s
full-update-interval: 10s
update-types: full-and-incremental

To disable incremental/full updates, specify this in the update-types tag, for example:

yaml
js-pipeline-compilation:
# Can be only-full, only-incremental, full-and-incremental
update-types: only-full
update-interval: 180s

Update intervals

update-interval is the time interval between the Update calls. In particular this means:

  • Update is not called concurrently
  • Only with update-jitter: 0s and is-strong-period: true updates follow a strict schedule.

full-update-interval is the minimum interval between full updates in full-and-incremental cache. With each update, the cache checks if full-update-interval of the time has passed since the previous full update, and if it has passed, the current update will be full.

update-jitter describes the spread in the delay between cache updates. It is especially useful in the case of heavy caches, which significantly load the database/remote with their updates. Adding a random delay spreads the cache updates of various instances over time, thereby removing the peak load on the database/remote.

Fault Tolerance

The user can get the current cache snapshot regardless of the current state of the database/remote from which the cache is being poured, provided that at least once the cache update worked correctly. The user is working with a local copy, which may be slightly behind the original in time. In case of problems with the database/remote the cache update may finish with an error (i.e. the Update method will throw an exception), leaving the local cache unchanged.

By default, the first cache update must be completed successfully to set the initial value. If the first update fails with an error, i.e. the update throws an exception, then this leads to an exception in the cache component constructor and to the service shutdown. There are two ways to change this behavior:

  1. By enabling dumps, in this case the cache starts with the state stored in the dump. If there is no dump, the service will still fall when the first update fails. You can overcome this through next clause
  2. By giving a permission to load without the first update. In case of auxiliary cache, it may be useful to leave the cache in an error state and asynchronously update it after the service start. To do this, specify first-update-fail-ok in the component settings:
    yaml
    first-update-fail-ok-cache:
    update-interval: 60s
    update-jitter: 10s
    full-update-interval: 1000s
    first-update-fail-ok: true

If the "cache has no data" situation is normal for you and you want to handle it yourself, you can override the MayReturnNull() method in the cache so that it returns true (by default false). In this case, instead of an exception, you will get an empty smart pointer (nullptr).

Access synchronization, versioning, memory consumption

Cache implementation does not block numerous concurrent cache readers while doing a background cache update. In case of time consuming work with cache data, users may encounter the fact that different readers work with different versions of the data. As a result, more than two versions of the cache data can coexist at the same time. Memory and other resources of old data versions are released either when updating the cache or when the background garbage collector collects the garbage. The frequency of garbage collection is regulated via the additional-cleanup-interval parameter.

The total amount of memory for the cache can be approximately calculated by the formula:

Total cache memory = cache data memory * ([user time / update interval] + 1)

where:

  • cache data memory is the maximum size of one cache copy
  • update interval - minimum cache update period
  • user time - the maximum time that users hold a copy of the cache (i.e. the lifetime of the Get() result)

For example, if the cache data occupies 1 GB, the cache is updated every 4 seconds, and the handle works for 9 seconds, then the total memory consumption of the cache is 1 GB * ([9/4]+1) = 4 GB.

A commonly used technique to solve the problem of excessive memory consumption for large caches is splitting the cache into chunks.

Heavy Caches

Updating caches can significantly load the CPU, for example, when parsing data from a database. If such a load lasts for a significant time without context switches (several tens of milliseconds), then this may negatively affect the timings of the service. Sometimes a similar problem occurs not only when forming a new cache snapshot, but also in the callback of a cache subscription, for example, when forming an additional cache index. There are several ways to solve this problem.

The first option. Increase the number of CPU cores. The more cores you have in the service, the less CPU fraction is used by caches and the better is the efficiency of the service. On the contrary, when splitting a cluster into small containers with a small number of cores, the number of cache instances in the cluster increases, which is why the consumed by caches CPU fraction increases.

The second option. Add context switching. If you call engine::Yield() every 1-2ms, then the framework engine has time to execute the other ready for execution coroutines and the queue of ready coroutines does not grow to undesirable values. To simplify working with engine::Yield, it is recommended to use utils::CpuRelax rather than calling engine::Yield() manually.

Specializations for DB

Caches over DB are caching components that use a trait structure as a template argument for customization. Such componenets are:

A typical case of cache usage consists of trait structure definition:

struct PostgresTrivialPolicy {
static constexpr std::string_view kName = "my-pg-cache";
using ValueType = MyStructure;
static constexpr auto kKeyMember = &MyStructure::id;
static constexpr const char* kQuery = "SELECT a, b, updated FROM test.data";
static constexpr const char* kUpdatedField = "updated";
using UpdatedFieldType = storages::postgres::TimePointTz;
};

and registration of the caching component in components::ComponentList:

The DB caches are simple to use and quite poverfull.

Writing a cache

To write your own cache using only the components::CachingComponentBase base class, you need to override the cache::CacheUpdateTrait::Update, implement Full and Incremental updates. In Update(), don't forget to put down metrics for the stats_scope object, describing how many objects were read, how many parsing errors there were, and how many elements are in the final cache.

See Pre-caching data from HTTP remote for a detailed introduction.

Parallel loading

Cache components, like other components, are loaded in parallel. This allows you to speed up the loading of the service in the case of numerous heavy caches.

Metrics

Each cache automatically collects metrics:

...
cache.simple-dumped-cache.dump.is-loaded-from-dump 1
cache.simple-dumped-cache.dump.is-current-from-dump 0
cache.simple-dumped-cache.dump.last-nontrivial-write.duration-ms 17
cache.simple-dumped-cache.dump.last-nontrivial-write.size-kb 0
cache.simple-dumped-cache.dump.last-nontrivial-write.time-from-start-ms 927
cache.simple-dumped-cache.dump.load-duration-ms 9
...
cache.taxi-config.any.documents.parse_failures 0
cache.taxi-config.any.documents.read_count 1257984
cache.taxi-config.any.time.last-update-duration-ms 45
cache.taxi-config.any.time.time-from-last-successful-start-ms 4687
cache.taxi-config.any.time.time-from-last-update-start-ms 4687
cache.taxi-config.any.update.attempts_count 12290
cache.taxi-config.any.update.failures_count 0
cache.taxi-config.any.update.no_changes_count 11294
cache.taxi-config.current-documents-count 1271
cache.taxi-config.dump.is-loaded-from-dump 0
cache.taxi-config.full.documents.parse_failures 0
cache.taxi-config.full.documents.read_count 1249139
cache.taxi-config.full.time.last-update-duration-ms 45
cache.taxi-config.full.time.time-from-last-successful-start-ms 39832
cache.taxi-config.full.time.time-from-last-update-start-ms 39832
cache.taxi-config.full.update.attempts_count 989
cache.taxi-config.full.update.failures_count 0
cache.taxi-config.full.update.no_changes_count 0
cache.taxi-config.incremental.documents.parse_failures 0
cache.taxi-config.incremental.documents.read_count 8845
cache.taxi-config.incremental.time.last-update-duration-ms 1
cache.taxi-config.incremental.time.time-from-last-successful-start-ms 4687
cache.taxi-config.incremental.time.time-from-last-update-start-ms 4687
cache.taxi-config.incremental.update.attempts_count 11301
cache.taxi-config.incremental.update.failures_count 0
cache.taxi-config.incremental.update.no_changes_count 11294
...